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Quick-start cases:


Dural layers

External brain

Brain sections

Base of skull

Cranial nerves

Multiple brain features


How to find more:

Go to the Anatomy Pins page. Search by anatomic term.



Other anatomy

Quick-start cases:


Heart within pericardial sac.

Lungs and airway (posterior view).



How to find more:

Go to the Body Map. Search under the Anatomy option by body location. The page guides you through.

Or, go to the Anatomy Pins page to search by anatomic term.



Find specific anatomy structures

Quick-start cases:


Papillary muscle with chordae tendinae

Abductor pollicis longus muscle

Ampulla of Vater


How to find more:

Go to the Anatomy Pins page to search by anatomic term.



Anatomic variation

Quick-start cases:


Bifid xyphoid process

Metopic (frontal) suture

Accessory spleen


How to find more:

Go to the Anatomy Variation page.



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How to find more:

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Pathology by Organ

How to find more:

Use the Body Map. Search Pathology.




Find any pathology on the site

How to find more:

Search the Library.

Or, search alphabetically in the Anatomy Pins page.




Compare similar conditions across patients

How to find more:

Use the Clinical Panels page to find examples of tumors, heart disease, and other processes in groups of patients.



Clinical Medicine Skills



External Exam – general

Quick-start cases:


External exam – Case 1

External exam – Case 2

External exam – Case 3


How to find more:

Go to the History page. Select “Next: External Exam” below most case histories.

Or, go to the Library. Part 1 of any case is typically the external exam.



External Exam – Specific Findings

Quick-start cases:


Use of symmetry during physical exam.

Abdominal distention.

Debrided decubitus ulcer.

Dried blistering from reperfusion syndrome.

Unilateral leg swelling.

Loss of muscle mass.


How to find more:

Go to the Body Map. Choose “Pathology.” Scan the “External Exam” image to select from examples.

Or, search in the Library.



History Taking – Symptom description

Quick-start cases:

The patient was diagnosed with musculoskeletal pain, but the origin was cardiac.

The patient had cardiac symptoms, but a negative work-up and then died from hypertensive disease. His coronary arteries were wide open.

The patient had chronic back pain then new onset back pain one week prior to death. The autopsy showed his pacemaker lead ruptured through the septum of the heart.


How to find more:

Review the History. Decide what history-taking skills would apply.



Vital sign – Blood Pressure

Quick-start cases:


The patient had intraoperative hypotension then multiorgan failure. The case illustrates cardiogenic shock (bowel infarct, liver infarct, hepatic vein thrombosis, abnormal labs.)

The patient was hypotensive after dialysis, then died. The blood pressure values from dialysis are provided.

The patient presented with symptomatic hypertension. Then his blood pressure normalized. But it’s because he was in hemorrhagic shock with hemoperitoneum.



Vital sign – Heart rate

Quick-start cases:


The patient had pain-related tachycardia and undiagnosed coronary artery disease. She died from myocardial infarction.

The patient presented (most likely) with bradycardia followed by hemorrhagic shock from CPR-related trauma.



Mental Status change

Quick-start cases:


The patient had mental status changes after a spinal surgery. Clinical considerations were medication-related or a central nervous system infection.

The patient had mental status changes after losing a pulse in her foot following an angiogram. The physician diagnosed anxiety and prescribed anxiolytics, but the patient was in hemorrhagic shock.

The patient had mental status changes, with consideration of medication use.

The patient was diagnosed with “sundowning” but had suffered head trauma from a fall.



Kidney failure

Quick-start cases:


The case shows a patient with a peritoneal dialysis catheter and cirrhosis.

The patient was a dialysis patient with chronic renal failure.

The patient had new onset kidney failure presenting with a “metallic taste” taste in his mouth.

The patient had acute renal failure. The case illustrates weight gain, fluid retention (anasarca) and uremic pericarditis.

The patient had obstructive (post-renal) acute kidney failure from an enlarged prostate. He presented with severe hypertension and died from hemoperitoneum.




Quick-start cases:


The case illustrates a large stroke with cavitation. (Case 20 Part 7).

The physical exam in this case illustrates loss of muscle mass in a patient with immobility.

The case shows cerebral edema, midline shift and duret hemorrhages (related to head trauma from a fall).




Shortness of breath

Quick-start cases:


Shortness of breath from pulmonary embolism.




Relationships, Ethics

Quick-start cases:


-When should a provider ask for help?
-What is the basis of competence?
-How do you talk to families when the loved one becomes sick under their care?

-What’s the moral obligation to report adverse events?
-Who should be notified?

-Who makes life or death decisions during an emergency?
-What is the provider’s role in providing care to an unstable patient who refuses treatment?

-How do you maintain professional integrity when pressured by the family or patient?

-What is the ethics of operating without evidence-based reasoning?

-What is the family’s role in ensuring care?