Internal cardiac chambers
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1. Identify the main internal structure of the right heart. (Right atrium, foramen ovale, auricle, tricuspid valve, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, right ventricle, right ventricular outflow tract, pulmonary valve, pulmonary valve commissures, pulmonary artery.)
2. Identify the main internal structure of the left heart. (Left atrium, foramen ovale, auricle, mitral valve, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, left ventricle, left ventricular outflow tract, aortic valve, aortic valve commissures, coronary ostia, aorta.)
3. Identify the septum.
4. Identify the moderator band (not identified in the audio, but visible in the video).
5. Identify trabecalae carneae.
6. Most of the valves are measured. It passes quickly in the video, but see if you can note the valve circumferences.
7. Are the valve circumferences normal? (What are normal measurements for each valve?)
8. The thickness of right ventricle (at the outflow tract) and the left ventricle (near the base) are measured. How thick is each?
9. Are the ventricular thickness measurements normal? (What is the normal thickness of the right and left ventricle?)
10. Name the tricuspid valve leaflets (not given in the audio, but visible).
11. Name the mitral valve leaflets (not given in the audio, but visible).
12. Which mitral valve leaflet share the wall of the left ventricular outflow tract?
13. Trace the flow of blood from right atrium to the pulmonary artery, naming the structures the blood passes.
14. Trace the flow of blood from left atrium to aorta, naming the structures the blood passes.
15. Is the foramen ovale closed or patent (open)?
16. What is a paradoxical embolism? Could this patient have had one?
17. Review Part 3. Explain why pulmonary embolism is a risk during atrial fibrillation considering the anatomy of the auricle.
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